Every fourth medicinal drug is manufactured from the genetic resources of tropical plants. expand_more Jedes vierte Arzneimittel wird aus Genressourcen. drug - Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch. Stichwörter und Wendungen sowie Übersetzungen. SpanishA pesar de este programa de acción, la UE apoya a European Cities on Drug Policy que trabaja a favor de la legalización de las drogas. more_vert.
"Drug" Deutsch ÜbersetzungViele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "drug" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für drug im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. drug - Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch. Stichwörter und Wendungen sowie Übersetzungen.
Drug Deutsch Navigation menu VideoDrogen im Visier - PCP in Washington - S05E04 Deutsch - 720p HD Synonyme Synonyme Englisch für "drug":. English Demand was made on the SAB to bring this come-on drug more stringently under control. Niederländisch Wörterbücher. gestaltpsihoterapeut.com | Übersetzungen für 'drug' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. International Drug Names. The gestaltpsihoterapeut.com International Drug Name Database contains information about medications found in countries around the world. The database contains more than 40, medication names marketed outside the USA and is presented in multiple languages. Die „Foundation for a Drug-Free World“ ist eine gemeinnützige Organisation, die das Ziel verfolgt, Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen die Fakten über Drogen zur Verfügung zu stellen, damit sie aufgrund dieses Wissens selbst entscheiden können, ein drogenfreies Leben zu führen.
The virus must go through a sequence of steps to do this, beginning with binding to a specific " receptor " molecule on the surface of the host cell and ending with the virus "uncoating" inside the cell and releasing its contents.
Viruses that have a lipid envelope must also fuse their envelope with the target cell, or with a vesicle that transports them into the cell before they can uncoat.
This strategy of designing drugs can be very expensive, and since the process of generating anti-idiotypic antibodies is partly trial and error, it can be a relatively slow process until an adequate molecule is produced.
A very early stage of viral infection is viral entry , when the virus attaches to and enters the host cell. A number of "entry-inhibiting" or "entry-blocking" drugs are being developed to fight HIV.
HIV most heavily targets the immune system's white blood cells known as "helper T cells", and identifies these target cells through T-cell surface receptors designated " CD4 " and " CCR5 ".
HIV infects a cell through fusion with the cell membrane, which requires two different cellular molecular participants, CD4 and a chemokine receptor differing depending on the cell type.
At least one of these entry inhibitors—a biomimetic peptide called Enfuvirtide , or the brand name Fuzeon—has received FDA approval and has been in use for some time.
Potentially, one of the benefits from the use of an effective entry-blocking or entry-inhibiting agent is that it potentially may not only prevent the spread of the virus within an infected individual but also the spread from an infected to an uninfected individual.
One possible advantage of the therapeutic approach of blocking viral entry as opposed to the currently dominant approach of viral enzyme inhibition is that it may prove more difficult for the virus to develop resistance to this therapy than for the virus to mutate or evolve its enzymatic protocols.
Inhibitors of uncoating have also been investigated. Amantadine and rimantadine have been introduced to combat influenza. These agents act on penetration and uncoating.
Pleconaril works against rhinoviruses , which cause the common cold , by blocking a pocket on the surface of the virus that controls the uncoating process.
This pocket is similar in most strains of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses , which can cause diarrhea, meningitis , conjunctivitis , and encephalitis.
Some scientists are making the case that a vaccine against rhinoviruses, the predominant cause of the common cold, is achievable.
Vaccines that combine dozens of varieties of rhinovirus at once are effective in stimulating antiviral antibodies in mice and monkeys, researchers have reported in Nature Communications in Rhinoviruses are the most common cause of the common cold; other viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus , parainfluenza virus and adenoviruses can cause them too.
Rhinoviruses also exacerbate asthma attacks. Although rhinoviruses come in many varieties, they do not drift to the same degree that influenza viruses do.
A mixture of 50 inactivated rhinovirus types should be able to stimulate neutralizing antibodies against all of them to some degree. A second approach is to target the processes that synthesize virus components after a virus invades a cell.
The first successful antiviral, aciclovir , is a nucleoside analogue, and is effective against herpesvirus infections. An improved knowledge of the action of reverse transcriptase has led to better nucleoside analogues to treat HIV infections.
One of these drugs, lamivudine , has been approved to treat hepatitis B, which uses reverse transcriptase as part of its replication process.
Researchers have gone further and developed inhibitors that do not look like nucleosides, but can still block reverse transcriptase.
Another target is integrase , which integrate the synthesized DNA into the host cell genome. Once a virus genome becomes operational in a host cell, it then generates messenger RNA mRNA molecules that direct the synthesis of viral proteins.
Production of mRNA is initiated by proteins known as transcription factors. Several antivirals are now being designed to block attachment of transcription factors to viral DNA.
Genomics has not only helped find targets for many antivirals, it has provided the basis for an entirely new type of drug, based on "antisense" molecules.
These are segments of DNA or RNA that are designed as complementary molecule to critical sections of viral genomes, and the binding of these antisense segments to these target sections blocks the operation of those genomes.
A phosphorothioate antisense drug named fomivirsen has been introduced, used to treat opportunistic eye infections in AIDS patients caused by cytomegalovirus , and other antisense antivirals are in development.
An antisense structural type that has proven especially valuable in research is morpholino antisense. Yet another antiviral technique inspired by genomics is a set of drugs based on ribozymes , which are enzymes that will cut apart viral RNA or DNA at selected sites.
In their natural course, ribozymes are used as part of the viral manufacturing sequence, but these synthetic ribozymes are designed to cut RNA and DNA at sites that will disable them.
A ribozyme antiviral to deal with hepatitis C has been suggested,  and ribozyme antivirals are being developed to deal with HIV. This is part of a broader effort to create genetically modified cells that can be injected into a host to attack pathogens by generating specialized proteins that block viral replication at various phases of the viral life cycle.
Interference with post translational modifications or with targeting of viral proteins in the cell is also possible. Some viruses include an enzyme known as a protease that cuts viral protein chains apart so they can be assembled into their final configuration.
HIV includes a protease, and so considerable research has been performed to find " protease inhibitors " to attack HIV at that phase of its life cycle.
Protease inhibitors have also been seen in nature. A protease inhibitor was isolated from the Shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes.
Most viruses produce long dsRNA helices during transcription and replication. In contrast, uninfected mammalian cells generally produce dsRNA helices of fewer than 24 base pairs during transcription.
In cell culture, DRACO was reported to have broad-spectrum efficacy against many infectious viruses, including dengue flavivirus , Amapari and Tacaribe arenavirus , Guama bunyavirus , H1N1 influenza and rhinovirus , and was additionally found effective against influenza in vivo in weanling mice.
It was reported to induce rapid apoptosis selectively in virus-infected mammalian cells, while leaving uninfected cells unharmed. The procaspases transactivate via cleavage, activate additional caspases in the cascade, and cleave a variety of cellular proteins, thereby killing the cell.
Rifampicin acts at the assembly phase. The final stage in the life cycle of a virus is the release of completed viruses from the host cell, and this step has also been targeted by antiviral drug developers.
Two drugs named zanamivir Relenza and oseltamivir Tamiflu that have been recently introduced to treat influenza prevent the release of viral particles by blocking a molecule named neuraminidase that is found on the surface of flu viruses, and also seems to be constant across a wide range of flu strains.
Rather than attacking viruses directly, a second category of tactics for fighting viruses involves encouraging the body's immune system to attack them.
Some antivirals of this sort do not focus on a specific pathogen, instead stimulating the immune system to attack a range of pathogens.
One of the best-known of this class of drugs are interferons , which inhibit viral synthesis in infected cells.
A more specific approach is to synthesize antibodies , protein molecules that can bind to a pathogen and mark it for attack by other elements of the immune system.
Once researchers identify a particular target on the pathogen, they can synthesize quantities of identical "monoclonal" antibodies to link up that target.
A monoclonal drug is now being sold to help fight respiratory syncytial virus in babies,  and antibodies purified from infected individuals are also used as a treatment for hepatitis B.
Antiviral resistance can be defined by a decreased susceptibility to a drug caused by changes in viral genotypes.
Dazu gehören:. Langjähriger Leiter in der Gründungszeit war Walter Gilbert Campbell , der von bis und bis amtierte. FDA ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel.
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